The last decades, the implications of human actions in nature became more and more apparent. Exploitation of natural resources, habitat destruction in the sake of economic development, illegal species trading are only a few of the activities that have resulted in a new era of mass extinction, the Anthropocene.
One of the responses to this catastrophe was to set global environmental goals and specific targets that countries need to reach within a certain timeframe. The ultimate goal is that, during the attempt to reach these targets, society will be transformed and humanity will live in harmony with nature.
The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, is an environmental framework consisting of five goals and 20 targets. By the end of 2020, although efforts around the world increased immensely, biodiversity loss is continuing to rise. This indicates that more drastic responses are required.
In early July 2021, the first draft of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework was released. The final version will be decided in October 2021, during COP-15 at Kumming, China. This framework builds from the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, and sets out ambitious targets that should be fulfilled by 2050.
Some of the key targets are:
- Ensure at least 30% of land and sea areas globally (especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and its contributions to people) are conserved through effective, equitably managed, ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas (and other effective area-based conservation measures).
- Prevent or reduce the rate of introduction and establishment of invasive alien species by 50%, and control or eradicate such species to eliminate or reduce their impacts.
- Reduce nutrients lost to the environment by at least half, pesticides by at least two thirds, and eliminate discharge of plastic waste.
- Use ecosystem-based approaches to contribute to mitigation and adaptation to climate change, contributing at least 10 GtCO2e per year to mitigation; and ensure that all mitigation and adaptation efforts avoid negative impacts on biodiversity.
- Redirect, repurpose, reform or eliminate incentives harmful for biodiversity in a just and equitable way, reducing them by at least $500 billion per year.
- Increase financial resources from all sources by at least $ 200 billion per year, and increase international financial flows to developing countries by at least $10 billion per year to developing countries.
This document is of great importance to the future of biodiversity. Hopefully, previous experience on preparing and implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, will be key to avoid repeating mistakes, but will also help fulfill the framework’s goals and eventually transform society to live in harmony with nature.
- Maxwell SL, Fuller RA, Brooks TM, Watson JEM (2016) Biodiversity: the ravages of guns, nets and bulldozers. Nature 536:143–146. https://doi.org/10.1038/536143a
- IPBES (2019) Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. S. Díaz, et al. (eds.). IPBES secretariat, Bonn, Germany. 56 pages.
- CBD (2010) Decision adopted by the conference of the parties to the convention on biological diversity at its tenth meeting. Nagoya, Japan
- CBD (2020). First draft of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.